The Bread-winners – a novel by John Hay

The Bread-Winners. Responding to the 1877 labor strikes, this controversial anti-union novel depicts members of trade unions as ignorant and lazy and labor leaders as scoundrels. Anonymously published in the Century and in book form later in 1884, the novel prompts numerous responses, most notably The Money-Makers (1885) by Henry Francis Keenan. The authorship of The Bread-Winners would remain unknown until after Hay’s death.

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