Cleveland Day (July 22)

Tom L. Johnson supporter Peter Witt is credited with originating the idea of “Cleveland Day”. This from 7/15/1906 Plain Dealer
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and Tom L. Johnson thought it was a good idea and proclaimed it so, asking businesses to shut down for the day
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and so in 1906 the first Cleveland Day was celebrated on July 22
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Plain Dealer editorial July 22, 1909 advocating for the public to support “Cleveland Day”
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After Mayor Johnson’s death in 1912, some argued for combining “Cleveland Day with Tom L Johnson’s birthday (July 18)
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but that never caught on. And over time “Cleveland Day” declined in popularity and the city’s birthday, July 22 was celebrated primarily by the Early Settlers Association of the Western Reserve who have kept the idea of celebrating Cleveland alive by honoring Moses Cleaveland.

Moses Cleaveland celebration on July 21, 2017

“Cleveland and the Great War” Pressure Life Magazine June 2016

“Cleveland and the Great War”

Pressure Life Magazine June 2016 by Kevin Naughton

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The First World War was arguably the most significant conflict in the last century, setting the stage for geopolitics that still affect our world today. Despite having ended nearly a century ago, its legacy is far-reaching. Many historically and politically significant events have their roots squarely in the so called “Great War”: The Bolshevik revolution in Russia and the subsequent Western paranoia toward communism, the advent of Western intervention in the Middle East and the creation of its modern borders, the rise of Nazism throughout Europe, the considerable strengthening and organization of the American military, and increased English-American cooperation. Yet, in spite of its global impact, the conflict tends to be overshadowed by its louder, more charismatic younger brother, World War Two.

So where was Cleveland during all of this? Well, geographically, it was right where it has always been, but it looked a lot different. Skyscrapers did not yet dominate the skyline as construction of our iconic Terminal Tower would not commence for nearly a decade after the war ended, but the city still boasted the status of the sixth largest city in the United States at the time with a population of well over half a million. Cleveland had already established itself as an industrial city, a characteristic that was visibly evident at the time. “If you look at panoramic views of the Flats, which was the sort of industrial heart of the city, there’s just a pall of smoke over it,” said John Grabowski, a historian at the Western Reserve Historical Society, “and if one got down to the street level, you would find that it was very much an international, polyglot community, with workers from around the world.”

When the war in Europe began in 1914, the then non-interventionist United States was loath to inject itself into a conflict taking place an ocean away. Germany was not yet a genocidal fascist war machine, England and the U.S. did not yet fully trust each other, and nobody in the country really gave a shit about what happened to the struggling French, Russian, or Austro-Hungarian empires. Instead of picking a side, the U.S. elected to benefit economically from its neutrality, taking the opportunity to manufacture and sell equipment, uniforms, munitions, and other goods to both the Central (chiefly Germany and Austro-Hungary) and Entente (chiefly France and England) powers, although British naval blockades did limit dealings with Germany. Cleveland, ever the industrial boom town, was at the forefront of this effort.

“The war really cannibalized the city’s industry,” explained Grabowski, who added, “Cleveland had a direct pipeline to Washington, because Cleveland’s reform mayor, Newton D. Baker, ends up becoming the Secretary of War.” Longtime friends with President Woodrow Wilson, Baker contracted out many of the European demands for military supplies to Cleveland industrialists, who happily obliged them. According to the Western Reserve Historical Society, “by the fall of 1918, it was estimated that the city had produced $750 million worth of munitions in the 4 years since the war had begun.”

Things got interesting when the United States decided to enter the war. While the United States’ military effect upon the outcome of the war bordered upon negligible—most of the killing and dying had already been taken care of by the European powers—many Americans nonetheless fought and died in the last year of the conflict. According to the Western Reserve Historical Society, “almost 41,000 Clevelanders had joined the services; 1,023 of them were killed in the conflict.” That doesn’t include wounded—injuries in the First World War often left soldiers horrifically disfigured—or psychological casualties—the term “shell-shock” was coined during the conflict to describe the completely-debilitating mental breakdowns exhibited by many soldiers after spending too much time in the front—so it’s not a stretch to say that virtually everyone in the city had a friend or family member who was directly affected by the war.

The most profound effect the war had upon the city, however, was demographic. Cleveland’s population at the start of the war was more than a quarter German. So significant was their presence in the city that German was a required language in the Cleveland public school system. To this day, you can see German names atop old brick buildings in some of the more historic parts of the city. Sauerkraut, sausage, and potato pancakes are staples of Cleveland cuisine to this day, not to mention the city’s longtime love affair with beer. At the end of the Franco-Prussian war in the early 1870s, German Clevelanders even erected a triumphal arch in public square in celebration of their homeland’s victory over the French.

That all changed when the United States declared war on the Central powers. German-Americans, once a proud and civically active part of the city’s populace, were suddenly regarded with suspicion and contempt; they were now the enemy. Some changed their names and went into hiding, withdrawing from the public sphere. Others simply fled. Germans who tried to maintain a sense of national pride for their homeland were ostracized and condemned as traitors, like the German president of Baldwin-Wallace College, who, according to the Western Reserve Historical Society, “aroused the patriotic indignation of his students and faculty at the 1917 Christmas service by attempting to lead them in the singing of the German-language version of ‘Silent Night.’” Public outrage regarding the incident led to his permanent removal from his position.

The smaller, but certainly not insignificant, Hungarian population in Cleveland, numbering around 10,000, had a much different experience, largely due to the nature of their residence. Hungary was a largely agricultural nation, and many migrants lived and worked in Cleveland during the offseason, returning to Hungary with their earnings when it was time to work the fields. When the United States declared war upon their home country, most simply chose to remain in Hungary.

Those who stayed in the U.S. were few enough in number to avoid the public hostility that the Germans faced.
Lastly, the history of sordid treatment of Cleveland’s African-American population begins at the end of the war. The war all but curtailed European immigration, and labor shortages caused by increased wartime industrial demands provided a wealth of opportunity in Cleveland for the nation’s black population, who were still just beginning the struggle to find a place in free society. Instead of being welcomed with open arms, however, black migrants were treated with contempt by white Clevelanders, the city tragically succumbing to America’s historically racist tendencies. Ghettos formed and segregation was institutionalized, setting the stage for Cleveland’s long and ugly history of racial tension. The effects proved to be long-lasting: according to a recent study by Alexander Kent and Thomas C. Frohlich of news and commentary site 24/7 Wall St., Cleveland bears the embarrassing status as the most segregated city in the country.

All in all, Cleveland’s role in the First World War serves as a major reminder of the divisive and hateful nature of violent conflict. Remembering the stories of our fellow Clevelanders and countrymen turning on one another underscores an oft-neglected effect of war: the homefront is the stage of many tragedies as well, oftentimes with far-reaching and painful consequences. It is important to keep this in mind, especially in a day and age where saber-rattling seems to be growing louder and louder throughout the world.

Special thanks to the Western Reserve Historical Society, whose help and resources were invaluable in writing this article.

History of Woman Suffrage and League of Women Voters in Cuyahoga County 1911-1945 by Virginia Clark Abbott

History of Woman Suffrage and League of Women Voters in Cuyahoga County 1911-1945 by Virginia Clark Abbott

4 segments; each .pdf approx 10mb in size

Segment 1: pages 1-45 is here

Segment 2: pages 46-91 is here

Segment 3: pages 92-137 is here

Segment 4: pages 138-179 is here

Autobiography of Myron Herrick

Interesting autobiography/biography of Myron Herrick written in the late 1920s

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From the Encyclopedia of Clevelansd History

HERRICK, MYRON TIMOTHY (9 Oct. 1854-31 Mar. 1929), lawyer, businessman, politician, and diplomat, was born in Huntington, Lorain County, Ohio, son of Timothy and Mary (Hulbut) Herrick. He attended Ohio Wesleyan College, not completing his degree but instead coming to Cleveland to study law in 1875. He was admitted to the bar in 1878 and practiced law until 1886, when he organized Euclid Ave. Natl. Bank and began his long association with Society for Savings, serving there until 1921. He was involved in many business enterprises, such as building the ARCADE, and also became interested in politics. He served on CLEVELAND CITY COUNCIL from 1885-90, and as a staunch Republican, aided MARCUS HANNA† in grooming Wm. McKinley for the presidency. Moving up the Republican ranks, by 1903 he was the Republican nominee for governor of Ohio and was elected by a large majority over Democrat TOM JOHNSON†. He was a conservative, though controversial, governor, and was defeated for reelection in 1905.

Herrick in 1912 accepted the ambassadorship to France from Pres. Taft. Although replaced in 1914, he remained in Paris after the outbreak of WORLD WAR I, evacuating stranded Americans out of Europe and providing relief to war victims. He returned to Cleveland to lead various civic committees organized for the war effort. In 1921, Pres. Harding reappointed Herrick ambassador to France, where he helped handle Chas. Lindbergh’s historic Paris landing in 1927. Two years later, Herrick died in Paris. Herrick married Carolyn M. Parmely in 1880, and had 1 son, Parmely. He was buried in LAKE VIEW CEMETERY.

Daniel E. Morgan: The Good Citizen in Politics by Dr. Thomas F. Campbell

“Daniel E. Morgan: The Good Citizen in Politics” by Dr. Thomas F. Campbell, 1966

Daniel Morgan was a Republican politician who came together with Democrats during the pre WW1 period to help draft the Cleveland Charter of 1913. Dr Campbell views Morgan as a key member of the team that included Newton D. Baker and others who helped give Cleveland an enlightened civic environment during the early part of the 20th Century.

Courtesy of Mrs. Marguerite “Peggy” Campbell

The first part of book here (approx 7mg.) Please be patient as it downloads

The second part of book here (approx 7mg.) Please be patient as it downloads

MORGAN, DANIEL EDGAR – The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History

MORGAN, DANIEL EDGAR (7 Aug. 1877-1 May 1949), councilman, state senator, city manager, and judge, was born in Oak Hill, Ohio, to Elias and Elizabeth Jones Morgan. He received his B.A. from Oberlin College (1897) and LL.B. from Harvard Law School (1901). While practicing law in Cleveland, he was elected as a Republican to CLEVELAND CITY COUNCIL (1909-11), supported HOME RULE, and helped write Cleveland’s new charter, supporting a large council with small wards, believing people should have neighborhood representation. In 1928 he was elected Ohio state senator, earning a reputation for improving pending legislation to make it more effective.Cleveland adopted the CITY MANAGER PLAN in 1923; city council elected Morgan city manager in 1930. He negotiated settlements over utility rates; opened all staff positions at City Hospital to Negroes; and persuaded county officials to put a $31 million bond issue on the ballot to pay for public works to provide jobs during the Depression. However, mounting unemployment outstripped the means available to alleviate the problems, and in Nov. 1931 the plan was abolished, the city returned to mayor-ward government, and Morgan ran unsuccessfully for mayor in 1932. Morgan became judge on the Court of Appeals in 1939, serving until his death. Morgan supported Goodrich House, the CONSUMERS LEAGUE OF OHIO, and LEGAL AID SOCIETY OF CLEVELAND, and was also a founder and first president of the CITY CLUB OF CLEVELAND. He married Ella A. Matthews (d. 1923), a women’s suffragette, in 1915, and had daughter, Nancy Olwen (Mrs. Armand B. Leavelle). In 1926 he married Wilma Ball.


Former Ohio Gov. and U.S. Ambassador Myron Herrick was much beloved by French: Elegant Cleveland 10/18/2009

Former Ohio Gov. and U.S. Ambassador Myron Herrick was much beloved by French: Elegant Cleveland 10/18/2009 The link is here

Former Ohio Gov. and U.S. Ambassador Myron Herrick was much beloved by French: Elegant Cleveland

By Evelyn Theiss, The Plain Dealer on October 18, 2009 at 12:01 AM

Myron T. Herrick, looking properly ambassadorial here, by all accounts took his job, but never himself, too seriously. He was known to draw caricatures of speakers at banquets on menu cards and official programs.

ELEGANT CLEVELANDThis series looks back at the finest elements of Cleveland’s stylish history, as shown in its people, architecture, fashion and other cultural touchstones.

Myron T. Herrick was the U.S. ambassador to France in 1927, so you’d expect him to be at the airfield outside Paris that May, greeting Charles Lindbergh after he’d completed the first solo trans-Atlantic flight.But the Paris embassy wasn’t exactly the place you would have guessed that Herrick, a farmer’s son from Lorain County who got his start in politics as a Cleveland city councilman, would ever end up.

Yet, the first three decades of the 20th century were for Cleveland and Ohio a time of unimagined possibilities. And no one’s life story better reflects just how far a person could go in that era of potential, a time when this city and state wielded so much power on a national level, than Myron Timothy Herrick’s.

Herrick, by all accounts, didn’t achieve only heights of power and influence by being appointed ambassador, twice, by two presidents.

He became so beloved in France that boulevards in Paris and Rheims still carry his name.

Closer to Cleveland, all that is left of the Herrick estate atop Cedar Hill is the carriage house. John and Mary Lane Sullivan have lived here, on the lane now called Herrick Mews, since the early 1960s. The view from their second-floor living room is of a teahouse, now unused, that embraced the sunken gardens separating the mansion from the stables.

The Sullivans’ foyer features several pieces of Herrick memorabilia, including the dinner program from the Hotel Cleveland, where Herrick and others feted Lindbergh a mere two months after his flight to Paris.

“I think Myron Herrick is one of the most neglected people in Cleveland history,” says John Sullivan, a retired lawyer.

But France certainly remembers Herrick. The Sullivans recall a story their friend Mary Bolton shared with them. Her husband, Kenyon, had worked for another ambassador to France, David Bruce, in the early 1950s.

“Mary told us how a minister in the French government said to her that Mr. Bruce was one of the three greatest representatives of America who had ever come to France,” says Sullivan.

The others? Monsieur Myron Herrick, he said, of course. And the second? “Well, you ought to be ashamed of yourself for not knowing your history — Benjamin Franklin!”

Moral judgment,

powerful friendships

When Myron Herrick grew up near Wellington, the closest connection he had to France was his father Timothy’s reading aloud Victor Hugo’s “Les Miserables.” While only in his teens himself, he began teaching in a one-room schoolhouse to earn money for college, though he himself never finished high school.

Later, he went to Oberlin Academy, then to Ohio Wesleyan, but left as a junior. He moved to Cleveland and, after working three years at a law firm, was admitted to the bar. He married a woman he’d met at Oberlin, Carolyn Parmely, to whom he was, and remained, devoted.

With the help of his wife’s advice, Herrick made a decision that would change his future. He’d endorsed a note for $8,000, the equivalent of Herrick’s worth at that time, on behalf of a businessman he knew. The business failed, yet Herrick discovered a loophole that would allow him not to have to cover the debt with the bank.

But he and Carolyn decided he had a moral obligation to pay it. That act brought the young lawyer to the attention of Mark Hanna, who was on the bank’s finance committee and was already one of the town’s major power brokers.

Soon, a solid friendship formed, and through Hanna, Herrick would become friends with William McKinley, who would serve as Ohio governor before being elected president of the United States.

Herrick-Lindbergh.jpgU.S. Ambassador Myron T. Herrick, who enjoyed traveling by air whenever he could, is shown with Lindbergh in Paris. He took the exhausted young pilot back to the embassy for food and rest, and a friendship was forged.

Herrick helped raised funds for McKinley to pay down some debts — and when McKinley became president, he offered Herrick his choice of jobs: ambassador to Italy or secretary of the Treasury.Herrick turned down both, explaining that he was trying to make a go of a bank he was involved in, the Society for Savings (which would become Society National Bank). Later, he admitted he’d also heard some bad things about the plumbing at the embassy in Rome.

Traveling in 1901, President McKinley had planned to visit Herrick in Cleveland, but was shot by an anarchist in Buffalo, N.Y., and died of his wounds.

Herrick’s and McKinley’s old friend Mark Hanna was by then an Ohio senator, and he persuaded Herrick to run for governor, believing that as a Republican Herrick would carry Northeast Ohio and therefore the state. He did, beating the famous Cleveland Mayor Tom L. Johnson in a landslide.

But Herrick lost his bid for re-election. So he went back to his banking business and helped it grow.

In 1912, President William Howard Taft offered him the post of French ambassador. Herrick’s wife, Carolyn, and his son Parmely’s wife, Agnes, were both anxious to live in Paris and urged him to accept, and he did.

The outgoing ambassador, Robert Bacon, wondered whether Herrick would mind if he was still in Paris when he arrived. Herrick amiably said he didn’t, and suggested they spend some time together.

So Bacon canceled his reservation to sail on the Titanic. He forever credited Herrick with saving his life.

How the French

came to love him

“It was largely due to a man from Cleveland that the panic did not extend so far that the whole population would have left Paris and the Germans marched in.” — Lord Northcliffe

When Herrick arrived as ambassador, he was surprised that French “society people” and French government officials did not mix socially, as they would in most capital cities. Herrick could not accept this, and so began having dinners and parties that brought both groups together. The ambassador figured that invitations to the American embassy were enticing, and he was right.

When Woodrow Wilson was elected president in the fall of 1912, Herrick, as expected, tendered his resignation in early 1913. But as it would take Wilson a while to fill the post, he asked Herrick to stay on for a time. Then Germany declared war on France in August 1914. Though Herrick’s successor had been named, he hadn’t arrived and Herrick could hardly leave.

Within months, German troops were perilously close to Paris. Many countries closed down their embassies; even the French government moved to Bordeaux.

Herrick, though, said he wouldn’t leave the American embassy, no matter the warnings of danger. (The United States was still neutral at this point.) Other ambassadors — even Germany’s — unofficially asked him to keep an eye on their embassies, and the French government asked him to essentially be their watchman in Paris, too. He agreed.

The American embassy was flooded by Americans who had been stranded because of the war, and Herrick worked 20-hour days with his employees to assist them. He also raised a large amount of money for the American Hospital and, later, French war relief.

For all these reasons, the French came to love him and eventually awarded him their Legion of Honor.

Rising to

many occasions

Upon his return to Cleveland, Herrick faced personal tragedies, including the deaths of his wife and his young grandson.

After struggling with melancholy, Herrick was delighted by the idea that he could go back to France as ambassador. President Warren G. Harding appointed him, and he went back to Paris in 1921.

The French welcomed him warmly, with receptions and honors, to the point they began exhausting him. But he kept rising to the occasion, entertaining and being entertained.

The Western Reserve Historical Society, to whom his descendants donated all his personal papers, has 16 boxes of invitations, banquet programs, menu cards and calling cards from those embassy years.

Prominent Clevelanders — names like George Gund, Jeptha Wade and Amasa Stone Mather — called on him in Paris, as did a cadre of British royals and European countesses. There’s even a card from the sculptor Auguste Rodin, who became a favorite friend of Herrick’s. Rodin was to create a bust of Herrick, but died before he could do so.

But the high point of his second stint as ambassador would be Lindbergh’s arrival. Herrick didn’t guess what a huge event it would be, until he saw the tens of thousands of people lined up on the way to the Le Bourget airfield.

There was a danger of the crowds inadvertently hurting Lindbergh, so a decoy figure was walked to Herrick. Actually, the pilot was awaiting Herrick inside a hangar. He told the ambassador he had letters of introduction — as if he needed them. They became the first airmail, and Lindbergh and Herrick became fast friends.

Two years later, on Easter Sunday 1929, Herrick died in his bed at the embassy in Paris, weakened by a cold. He was 75. He is buried in Lake View Cemetery.

Today, relatively few people know of this Cleveland man who not only went to Paris, but knocked the socks off the not-so-easily-charmed French.

As Cleveland historian John Grabowski says, “Once you begin to lose people with living memories, it becomes an abstraction. But his career trajectory shows us how important meeting the right people at the right time can be — and just how much power and influence came out of this community at the turn of the 20th century.”

One of the people who had a profound memory of Herrick’s impact on France was the world-renowned Cleveland artist Viktor Schreckengost, who died last year at 101. He was a good friend of the Sullivans, the couple who live in the Herrick carriage house.

Schreckengost had been living and studying in Vienna, Austria, and made his way to Paris on what happened to be the day of Herrick’s funeral. He told the Sullivans the story.

“That day, on the Champs-Elysees, military bands marched, with the drummers seven abreast,” the artist said. “They would march a number of paces, then stop. It was the most deafening silence I ever heard.”

Newton D. Baker – The Civil Warrior (documentary)

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A Teaching Cleveland Documentary. Camera, production and editing by Jeremy Borison. Special thanks to Dr. John J. Grabowski, Tom Suddes, Greg Deegan and Brent Larkin. Also to the Cleveland Public Library, Cleveland State University Special Collections and the Western Reserve Historical Society.