Henry Goldblatt, Developer of the Goldbatt Kidney : Mt Sinai Collection

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Goldblatt clamps for hypertension experiments, 1934

Goldblatt’s clamps, one shown in placement tool.
Below instruments used to operate clamps.

Harry Goldblatt (1891-1977) received his M.D. from McGill University Medical School in 1916. He began a surgical residency, but when the U.S. entered the war he enlisted in the medical reserves of the U.S. army. He was sent to France and later Germany as an orthopedic specialist. He returned to Cleveland in 1924 as assistant professor of pathology at Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and in 1954 was appointed Professor of Experimental Pathology. In 1961 he was named emeritus, but in the same year was appointed director of the Louis D. Beaumont Memorial Research Laboratories at Mt. Sinai. He worked there until he retired in 1976. He died January 6, 1977.

Goldblatt’s interest in hypertension, sparked during his days as a surgical resident, eventually would lead to his international fame. During his early days in pathology, he noted persons with normal blood pressure who had systemic atherosclerosis (colloquially referred to as hardening of the arteries) that did not affect the kidney, and conversely patients with hypertension where arteriosclerosis was confined to the renal arteries. He had been taught that so-called benign essential hypertension was defined as persistent elevation of the blood pressure of unknown etiology, without significant impairment of the renal functions, and that the elevated blood pressure comes first and results in vascular sclerosis. In some cases renal damage does occur and may eventually lead to uremia. Goldblatt’s own observations; however, led him to believe that vascular sclerosis came first, followed by elevated blood pressure.

Testing this theory was difficult however, because Goldblatt did not know how to reproduce vascular sclerosis. He decided that simulating the results of obliterative renal vascular disease by constricting the arteries leading to the kidneys would be sufficient. In order to achieve constriction of the renal arteries, Goldblatt developed the clamps seen in the picture. His experiments using the clamps, performed on dogs, showed an increase in hypertension with no renal impairments. One of the earliest, unexpected findings was the constriction of one renal artery resulted in temporary elevation of blood pressure which returned to normal when the clamp was removed. Subsequent experiments by Goldblatt and others revealed that the constriction of the renal arteries causes a chemical chain reaction leading to hypertension. Renin, a substance released by the kidneys, is generated when the renal arteries are constricted. Renin in the bloodstream causes the production of angiotensin 1. Angiotensin 1 is benign until it reacts with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to become angiotensin 2, which is a major cause of hypertension.

Goldblatt, HarrryThe clamps built by Goldblatt initiated a chain reaction as well. Successive experiments and discoveries eventually led to the isolation of an ACE inhibitor. By preventing angiotensin 1 from becoming angiotensin 2, this inhibitor has reduced the risk of stroke, heart attack, and heart failure in many hypertension patients.

Goldblatt received many honors, most importantly the scientific achievement award of the A.M.A. in 1976. Because of the implications of his work, the American Heart Association established the Dr. Harry Goldblatt Fellowship. In 1957, to commemorate the 25 th anniversary of Goldblatt’s first successful experiment to induce arterial hypertension by renal ischemia in the dog, the University of Michigan held a conference on the basic mechanism of arterial hypertension at Ann Arbor. It was here that the confusion regarding the names of the various compounds was settled, and a universal nomenclature for angiotensin was accepted.

Housing Crisis in Northeast Ohio – Where are We in 2015? forum

Housing Crisis in Northeast Ohio – Where are We in 2015? 

Wednesday, October 7 7-8:30 p.m.
CWRU Siegal Facility in Beachwood, OH
• Thomas Bier, Senior Fellow, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University
• James Rokakis, Former Cuyahoga County Treasurer, Cleveland Councilman, Director Thriving Communities Institute
Moderator: Brent Larkin, The Plain Dealer

Northeast Ohio was one of the hardest hit housing markets in the U.S. in recent years. The market has begun to recover, but housing values and real estate taxes remain two of the most important economic issues facing local residents today. This forum will discuss current home prices, new construction, demolitions and foreclosures.

Cosponsored by City Club of Cleveland, Cleveland Jewish News Foundation, CWRU Siegal Lifelong Learning, League of Women Voters-Greater Cleveland

Cleveland settler Lorenzo Carter just one of stories included in Cleveland Heights history class Plain Dealer

By Mike Kezdi, special to Sun News 
on September 24, 2013 at 10:25 AM
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Tom L. Johnson was mayor of Cleveland from 1901-1909. He is one of many people discussed in “Cleveland Stories: An Informal Look at Cleveland’s Past” taught by Cleveland Heights resident Marian Morton using materials provided by teachingcleveland.org. 

CLEVELAND HEIGHTS, Ohio – Moses Cleaveland is credited with founding Cleveland in 1796, but he never actually settled here.

It was Lorenzo Carter, who arrived in 1797 almost a year after Cleaveland and built a log cabin on the east bank of the Cuyahoga River.

He is also credited with owning acres of land on both the east and west sides of the river, he built the first log warehouse, his family owned the first frame house in Cleveland, and he served as a major in the Ohio Militia.

Carter’s story marks the beginning of Cleveland history, in a Case Western Reserve University adult education class taught by Marian Morton, which starts Thursday, Sept. 26, in Cleveland Heights.

“I think you should know something about the place that you live,” said Morton, a Cleveland Heights resident.

One of the biggest proponents of adult education in Cleveland was the city’s 37thmayor and former U.S. Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker. After returning to Cleveland from his service to the nation, Baker took up the mantle for advancing adult education.

Mike Baron, of Beachwood, a co-founder of teachingcleveland.org, says that Baker’s work in adult education is an appropriate segue into why Case Western is offering “Cleveland Stories: An Informal Look at Cleveland’s Past.”

Baker was the father of adult education in Northeast Ohio,” Baron said.

According to the article, “Newton D. Baker and the Adult Education Movement” by Rae Wahl Rohfeld from the Ohio Historical Journal, available at ohiohistory.org and also found on teachingcleveland.org, Baker helped create the Cleveland College an affiliation of Western Reserve University, the YMCA and the Case Institute of Technology.

Baron says based on that alone, it’s fitting that this course is offered as an Off-Campus Studies course in The Laura and Alvin Siegal Lifelong Learning Program.

The program, taught by Morton, starts at 7 p.m. and continues Thursdays through Nov. 14 at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, 2747 Fairmount Blvd. Cleveland Heights.

“The history of Cleveland is seldom taught in colleges and universities,” said Morton, professor emeritus of history at John Carroll University. “It’s never taught in an adult education class.”

She spent almost 40 years teaching at John Carroll. Among those courses was one about Cleveland history. This is the first time she is teaching a Cleveland history class for adults.

The class, she says will be mostly discussion, like a book club, based on a series of essays compiled by Baron from the teachingcleveland.org website. A book of the compiled essays is available at the class and is included in the $75 registration fee.

“We (Teaching Cleveland) would like to see a little bit of scholarship about Cleveland,” Baron said.

He went on to say that the now three-year-old website has numbers to prove that people are interested in history of the region. The site gets an estimated 40,000 page reads a month.

Baron approached Morton about teaching the program and she is looking forward to class.

“It’s fun to have a classroom full of grown-ups. People who were born before Bill Clinton was president,” Morton said.

The bulk of the course is about important people in Cleveland history from Carter, to at least the 1980s, Baron says.

“Everyone will find what they are looking for,” he said.

When pressed, to select his favorite time period in Cleveland history, Baron pointed to the period from 1870 to the Depression. Baron referred to the Cleveland in the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era as “mind blowing.”

“Cleveland was an amazing dynamic,” he said. “The talent that was in Northeast Ohio was just terrific.”

That included the likes of Mark Hanna, John D. Rockefeller, Amasa Stone and Baker.

Also included in the course are essays about several civic issues in Cleveland history including, “How Cleveland Women Got the Vote – and What They Did with It” about women’s suffrage, which is written by Morton.

A good sample of what the class will cover can be found under the Cleveland Stories tab at teachingcleveland.org. Registration is still open and can be made by visiting siegallifelonglearning.org and clicking on the Off Campus Studies link or by calling 216-216-368-5145.

As for Carter, it’s worth noting, his other accomplishments include building a 30-ton schooner named Zephyr, which helped expand regular trade to the east and he is credited with opening the first tavern in the city.

Tom L. Johnson Documentaries

Documentary #1

Dr. John Grabowski, Congressman Dennis Kucinich, James JT Toman and Greg Deegan discuss Mayor Tom L. Johnson (1901-1909) when Cleveland, OH was known as “The City on the Hill”

Created by: Nicole Majercak, Donald Majercak, Richard Kiovsky for Teaching Cleveland

The link is here

Documentary #2

Tom Johnson: Progressive Reform for the Common Man

 2009 National History Day Documentary on Tom L. Johnson, the mayor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909. By Nat Henry, Isaac Hoffman, Leo Katz, Jacob Miller, and Jack O’Halloran, all from Shaker Heights, Ohio.

The link is here