News Aggregator Archives: FEATURE area 2017

News Aggregator Archives: FEATURE area 2017

Catching up with Jane Campbell (2/10/2017) Cleveland Magazine

WATCH: Lake Shore Power Plant smoke stack comes crashing down (2/24/2017) Fox8

Edwins Restaurant in Cleveland Offers Ex-Offenders a New Start (2/22/2017) Paste

Why Ohio Is The Best State In America To Launch A Start-Up (2/20.2017) Forbes

The most historic place in each of Ohio’s 88 counties (2/17/2017) Cleveland.com

John D. Rockefeller Was the Richest Person To Ever Live. Period (January 2017) Smithsonian

Opioid overdose crisis plagues Cleveland (2/9/2017) CBS

Northeast Ohio agencies prepare for booming ‘silver tsunami’ (2/9/17) Freshwater

The legend of Moore (2/7/2017) St. Ignatius Enews

Akron Has a New Plan to Boost Its Shrinking Population (2/7/2017) NextCity

Ohio energy sources 1) Coal Mining 2) Natural Gas (February 2017) Westlake/Bay Village Observer

Ohio County was a poster child of voter fraud (2/3/2017) by Michael F. Curtin

“Proposed Merger of Cleveland and East Cleveland” forum video (1/31/17)

Ohio Was A Bellwether After All (1/25/2017) FiveThirtyEight

Transportation’s Role in the Economic Restructuring of Cleveland (1/2017) Cleveland State University

What should be done about East Cleveland? (1/19/17) Cleveland.com

When Martin Luther King Jr. Brought His Fight to Cleveland (1/16/2017) Ideastream

Where Educated Millennials Are Moving (1/13/17) Forbes

The Symbol of the City – The Cleveland Flag (1/9/17) Tom Horsman

175 years of telling Cleveland’s story-special anniversary issue (1/8/17) Plain Dealer

Decision on fate of pedestrian bridge needs grounding in stronger lakefront vision (1/5/2017) Cleveland.com

Lead in Cleveland: Confronting a Silent Killer (1/5/2017) Freshwater

A Year That Can Never Be Taken From Cleveland (1/1/2017) New York Times

Important Upcoming Live Events

Important Upcoming Live Events
All open to the public. Please contact if you have questions about any of these events: teachingcleveland@earthlink.net

Tuesday March 21, 2017
“The Impact of State Budget Cuts on Northeast Ohio Communities”
Moderated by Brent Larkin, Cleveland.com
Parma Snow Branch, Cuy County Public Library 2121 Snow Road, Parma
7-8:30 p.m. Free & Open to the Public

Tuesday April 18, 2017
“Is the Child Foster Care System in Northeast Ohio Broken?”
Moderated by Phillip Morris, The Plain Dealer

Lakewood Public Library, 15425 Detroit Avenue, Lakewood, OH

6:30-8:00 p.m. Free & Open to the Public

Tuesday May 9, 2017 NEW DATE
“East Side Neighborhood Development” Forum
Moderated by Terry Schwartz, Director, Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative, Kent State Univ.
Cleveland Hts/University Hts Public Library, 2345 Lee Road 44118
7-8:30 p.m. Free & Open to the Public

Tuesday May 16, 2017 
“Fracking and the Impact of the Utica Shale on Ohio”
Moderated by Dan Shingler, Crain’s Cleveland Business
Solon Community Center 35000 Portz Pkwy, Solon, OH 44139
7-8:30 p.m. Free & Open to the Public

Wednesday June 14, 2017
“Transportation in Northeast Ohio. Where’s the equity?”
Moderated by Ginger Christ, Transportation Reporter, Plain Dealer
Urban Community School 4909 Lorain Avenue, Cleveland OH 44102
7-8:30pm Free and Open to the Public

Tuesday August 29, 2017
“The Election for Mayor; a discussion about the future of Cleveland”
Moderated by Leila Atassi, Reporter, Cleveland.com
CWRU Tinkam Veale Student Center, CWRU Campus
7-8:30pm Free and Open to the Public


All open to the public. Please contact if you have questions about any of these events: teachingcleveland@earthlink.net

Most of these are co-sponsored by the Case Western Reserve University Siegal Lifelong Learning Program, League of Women Voters-Greater Cleveland, Cleveland.com/Plain Dealer plus Heights, Lakewood and Cuyahoga County Library Systems and City of Solon. Corporate sponsor: First Interstate Properties, Ltd.

The Cleveland Catholic series is co-sponsored by John Carroll University-Institute of Catholic Studies, The Carroll News and Teaching Cleveland Digital

 

Teaching Cleveland News Network

Ironworkers placing the last steel beam in the Sohio building (200 Public Square), which was completed in 1985 #ThisWasCLE

Teaching Cleveland News Network
News From Around Ohio and the U.S. 
of Interest to Northeast Ohio
   

FEATURES/OPINION/VIDEO 

Catching up with Jane Campbell (2/10/2017) Cleveland Magazine

WATCH: Lake Shore Power Plant smoke stack comes crashing down (2/24/2017) Fox8

Edwins Restaurant in Cleveland Offers Ex-Offenders a New Start (2/22/2017) Paste

Why Ohio Is The Best State In America To Launch A Start-Up (2/20.2017) Forbes

The most historic place in each of Ohio’s 88 counties (2/17/2017) Cleveland.com

John D. Rockefeller Was the Richest Person To Ever Live. Period (January 2017) Smithsonian

Opioid overdose crisis plagues Cleveland (2/9/2017) CBS

Northeast Ohio agencies prepare for booming ‘silver tsunami’ (2/9/17) Freshwater

The legend of Moore (2/7/2017) St. Ignatius Enews

Akron Has a New Plan to Boost Its Shrinking Population (2/7/2017) NextCity

Ohio energy sources 1) Coal Mining 2) Natural Gas (February 2017) Westlake/Bay Village Observer

Ohio County was a poster child of voter fraud (2/3/2017) by Michael F. Curtin

“Proposed Merger of Cleveland and East Cleveland” forum video (1/31/17)

Ohio Was A Bellwether After All (1/25/2017) FiveThirtyEight

NEWS 

Pittsburgh’s black middle class has learned to navigate a city that is still segregated in many respects (2/26/2017) Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

Cleveland, state, JobsOhio reach deal that clears way for Opportunity Corridor (2/24/2017) Cleveland.com

In One Glenville Neighborhood, Residents See Looming Gentrification (2/24/2017) Ideastream

Cleveland Mayor Frank Jackson is favorite to win a 4th term – for now: Brent Larkin (2/23/17) Cleveland.com

Seven projects that will change the face of Cleveland (2/23/2017) Freshwater

FirstEnergy talks bankruptcy and need for bailout of its nuclear plants (2/22/2017) Crain’s Cleveland Business

Cleveland to “phase out,” but not close, eight schools after turnaround efforts flounder (2/21/2017) Cleveland.com

Northeast Ohio ranks fourth in Midwest biomedical investments (2/20/2017) Cleveland.com

Who’s running for mayor in Cleveland? Frank Jackson faces a crowded field for re-election (2/20/17) Cleveland.com

Cities reap benefits of downtown bus hubs (2/19/2017) Toledo Blade

Ohio’s tuition vouchers could soon give more money to more middle class, suburban students (2/17/2017) Cleveland.com

Cleveland would lose $2 million under Kasich’s proposal for local aid; 51 other Ohio cities would also lose out (2/16/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio City park plan, at Irishtown Bend, gets Clean Ohio grant to buy, clear land (2/16/2017) Plain Dealer

Cleveland Clinic CEO Toby Cosgrove reports rough financial year for hospital in 2016 (2/15/2017) Plain Dealer

Who’s running for Cleveland City Council? Here’s a look at potential candidates who have pulled petitions (2/15/2017) Cleveland.com

Opponents, some supporters, of Q renovation plan pack Cuyahoga County Council meeting (2/14/2017) Cleveland.com

How young is too young? 36,000 elementary school suspensions in Ohio (2/14/2017) WKYC

Detroit’s big city lifestyle attracts young suburbanites (2/12/2017) Detroit Free Press

Cuyahoga County demolition fund puts dent in housing-market distress (2/12/2017) Plain Dealer

Ohio EPA releases plan for curbing nutrient pollution in Lake Erie (2/9/2017) Sandusky Register

Ohio 45th of 50 states in college affordability: study (2/9/2017) Dayton Daily News

Port hires design team to envision transformation of Irishtown Bend (2/9/2017) Cleveland.com

Push underway for automatic voter registration in Ohio (2/9/17) Dayton Daily News

Ohio hopes to “streamline” student testing, says State Superintendent Paolo DeMaria (2/8/2017) Cleveland.com

Akron wants to grow from 198,000 residents to 250,000 by 2050: Here’s how (2/6/2017) Cleveland.com

Cleveland’s Public Square debate enters the national spotlight (2/4/2017) Plain Dealer

Cleveland Mayor Frank Jackson’s three terms in office (analysis) (2/4/2017) Cleveland.com

Cleveland, other local governments could get less state money under Gov. John Kasich’s budget (2/2/2017) Cleveland.com

Cleveland Mayor Frank Jackson to seek unprecedented fourth 4-year term (2/1/2017) Cleveland.com

2018 Ohio U.S. Senate candidates gearing up for another expensive race (2/1/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio could ban schools from expelling youngest students (1/31/2017) Dayton Daily News

Gov. John Kasich Releases Budget; Includes Sales Tax Increase (1/30/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio may change the way congressional lines are drawn (1/29/2017) Springfield News Sun

Ohio tax cuts have starved schools, libraries, drug treatment, critics say (1/29/2017) Columbus Dispatch

Nursing in Northeast Ohio is in critical condition (1/28/2017) Crain’s Cleveland Business

Small Ohio cities continue to struggle (1/27/2017) Zanesville Times Recorder

News Aggregator “Feature” Archives 2017

News Aggregator “News” Archives 2017

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88x31Teaching Cleveland Digital Media by www.teachingcleveland.org is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

 

Teaching Cleveland Welcome Page

Teaching Cleveland Welcome Page

Welcome to Teaching Cleveland Digital phase 2
Here is the original site

old-teaching-cleveland-image

Unfortunately it was an old platform and the time had come to move on
Also unfortunately all of our links from google are lost too. But the search function works pretty well. So just enter the topic you want to find in search and it should should pop up
Thank you for your patience. Click on the photos below if you want more content on the people shown

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johnson-as-the-motorman  carl-stokes-wins-1967

van-sweringens-1927

art-modell-1993

veeck-with-kids-1946

perk-on-fire-1972  voinovich-and-forbes-1986  kucinich-with-forbes

white-celebrates-gateway

baker-for-pres-cartoon-pd

A brief history of the Ohio income tax by Michael F. Curtin February 15, 2017


 

A brief history of the Ohio income tax
by Michael F. Curtin

Gov. John Kasich keeps swinging his ax at Ohio’s state income tax.

When he launched his 2010 campaign, Kasich revealed a dream of abolishing the tax. He won’t accomplish that, but his fourth and final budget proposal represents his fourth consecutive whack at it.

“We’ll march over time to destroy that income tax that has sucked vitality out of this state,” Kasich declared at his 2010 campaign kickoff.

The nexus between Ohio’s income tax and its economic fortunes is questionable. Forty-three states have income taxes. As of 2014, Ohio’s per-capita income-tax burden ranked 34th, says the conservative Tax Foundation.

In the modern era, conservatives argue the tax punishes initiative and slows economic growth. Progressives defend graduated income taxes as essential for reducing the average Joe’s overall tax burden.

This ideological fault line didn’t always exist. In the early 1900s, as the Progressive Era gained steam, federal and state leaders — Democrats and Republicans — simultaneously took interest in the idea of taxing incomes.

In September 1906, Republican Gov. Andrew L. Harris appointed a five-man tax commission “to investigate the tax laws of this state and to make recommendations for their improvement.”

In June 1909, President William Howard Taft, a Republican, proposed a constitutional amendment giving Congress the power to levy income taxes; the amendment was ratified in 1913.

The work of Ohio’s tax commission prompted delegates to the state’s 1912 constitutional convention to consider a state income tax. The question was put to Ohio voters that September. By a 52-48 vote, Ohioans authorized the General Assembly to consider income taxes, with uniform or graduated rates.

The General Assembly was not quick to use this authority. As the 20th century unfolded, the state looked elsewhere for revenues. In response to needs created by the Great Depression, in 1934 Ohio enacted a statewide sales tax of 3 percent. In 1967, it was raised to 4 percent.

However, pressures for an income-tax increased throughout the 1960s. In 1962, Tax Commissioner Stanley J. Bowers predicted Ohio would need an income tax within five years, primarily to relieve excessive burdens placed on real estate and personal property.

In 1968, a tax-study committee led by state Rep. Albert H. Sealy, R-Dayton, held 24 hearings across the state. Business interests, led by the Ohio Farm Bureau, the Ohio Contractors Association and the Ohio Hardware Association, voiced support for an income tax to offset the hated personal-property tax, which bore no relation to profitability.

In December 1971, after a half-century of buildup, Democratic Gov. John J. Gilligan and a Republican legislature adopted a state income tax, with rates ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 percent. The Republican game plan was to give Gilligan just enough votes to pass the tax, then clobber him with it in 1974.

When conservatives led by state Rep. Robert Netzley qualified a repeal for the November 1972 ballot, Ohio Republican Chairman John Andrews worked behind the scenes in opposition. The Ohio GOP platform that year remained silent on the issue. The repeal failed by more than 2 to 1. There were many reasons for Gilligan’s subsequent defeat, but the GOP tax strategy was pivotal.

The 1981-82 recession prompted Republican Gov. James Rhodes — a master of the “temporary tax” — to win approval of a 50 percent increase in the income tax. His successor, Democrat Richard Celeste, solidified it, adding another 40 percent over pre-1982 levels.

Those increases prompted another repeal effort, this time led by conservative state Sen. Thomas Van Meter. The repeal failed, 56-44.In 1984, for the first time, state income-tax collections surpassed sales-tax collections. By 2005, income-tax revenues accounted for nearly half of all state revenues, far outpacing the sales tax.Since then, the tide has run in the other direction. Under Govs. Bob Taft (1999-2007) and Kasich (2011-present), state income-tax rates have been slashed 30 percent. Sales-tax collections now far outpace income-tax revenues.

Kasich hopes to accelerate that trend, proposing a 17 percent reduction in income taxes, offset by increasing the sales tax to 6.25 percent, from 5.75 percent.

But even with Republican supermajorities in the House and Senate, Kasich might find a shortage of fellow ax wielders. Over time, the income tax comes in handy.

This piece originally ran in the Columbus Dispatch on Wednesday February 15, 2017

Columbus native Michael F. Curtin was formerly a Democratic Representative (2012-2016) from the 17th Ohio House District (west and south sides of Columbus). He had a 38-year journalism career with the Columbus Dispatch, most devoted to coverage of local and state government and politics. Mr. Curtin is author of The Ohio Politics Almanac, first and second editions (KSU Press). Finally, he is a licensed umpire, Ohio High School Athletic Association (baseball and fastpitch softball).

 

Cleveland History Self Study: A 5 Week Syllabus of Recommended Essays

Cleveland Stories: An Informal Look at the City’s Past

A 5 Week essay-based syllabus suggested by Dr. Marian Morton, professor emerita at John Carroll University with expertise in Cleveland area history.

Overview: A discussion of some of Cleveland’s most interesting and important people, places, and events
Objective: To link the city’s past with its present policies, politics, and practices

Week 1. Introduction. Read Teaching Cleveland Stories (TCS)John J. Grabowski, “Cleveland: Economics, Images, and Expectations”

Week 2. TCS: Mike Roberts and Margaret Gulley, “The Man Who Saved Cleveland.” Elizabeth Sullivan, “Immigration”  John Vacha, “The Heart of Amasa Stone”; Joe Frolik, “Mark Hanna: The Clevelander Who Made a President”

Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: Timeline of Cleveland/NE Ohio; The Western Reserve, 1796-1820, and Pre-Industrial (Erie and Ohio Canals), 1820-1865 and The Industrial Revolution/ John D. Rockefeller/ Mark Hanna, 1865-1900

Week 3. TCS: John J. Grabowski, “Cleveland 1912 – Civitas Triumphant”; Joe Frolik, “Regional Government versus Home Rule”  John Vacha, “When Cleveland Saw Red”  Margaret Bernstein, ‘’Inventor Garrett Morgan, Cleveland’s Fierce Bootstrapper”  Marian Morton, “How Cleveland Women Got the Vote and What They Did With It”

Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: Progressive Era/Tom L. Johnson/ Newton D. Baker, 1900-1915 and Fred Kohler/City Managers/Political Bosses, 1920s and The Van Sweringens/ Depression … 1930s

Week 4. TCS: Thomas Suddes, “The Adult Education Tradition in Greater Cleveland”  Bill Lubinger, “Bill Veeck: The Man Who Conquered Cleveland and Changed Baseball Forever”  Jay Miller, “Cyrus Eaton: Khruschev’s Favorite Capitalist” Roldo Bartimole, “One Man Can Make a Difference”  Mike Roberts, “Cleveland in the 1960s” and “Cleveland in the 1970s”

Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: World War 2- Post War, 1940s; Carl Stokes- Civil Rights, 1960s and Ralph Perk-Dennis Kucinich, 1970s

Week 5TCS: Mike Roberts, “Cleveland in the 1980s” and “Cleveland in the 1990s” Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: “10 Greatest Clevelanders”; “12 Most Significant Events”; Cleveland Politician Interview Series (George Forbes, Jim Rokakis, Louis Stokes, George Voinovich, Michael R. White); Mike Roberts, “Cleveland in the 2000s

General questions: what is the main point of each article? Did you agree or disagree? What did you find most interesting? What would you add? Or subtract? 

 

Teaching Cleveland Stories

Cleveland 1912: Civitas Triumphant By Dr. John Grabowski

Mark Hanna: The Clevelander Who Made a President By Joe Frolik

Rockefeller’s Right-Hand Man: Henry Flagler By Michael D. Roberts

Cleveland’s Original Black Leader: John O. Holly By Mansfield Frazier

The Heart of Amasa Stone By John Vacha

Frederic C. Howe:  Making Cleveland the City Beautiful (Or At Least Trying) by Marian Morton

Bill Veeck: The Man Who Conquered Cleveland and Changed Baseball Forever By Bill Lubinger

When Cleveland Saw Red By John Vacha

Maurice Maschke: The Gentleman Boss of Cleveland by Brent Larkin

Inventor Garrett Morgan, Cleveland’s Fierce Bootstrapper  by Margaret Bernstein

How Cleveland Women Got the Vote and What They Did With It  by Marian Morton

One Man Can Make a Difference by Roldo Bartimole

The Election That Changed Cleveland Forever by Michael D Roberts

Deferring Dreams: Racial and Religious Covenants in Shaker Heights, Cleveland Heights and East Cleveland, 1925 to 1970 By Marian Morton

Cyrus Eaton: Khruschev’s Favorite Capitalist By Jay Miller

Ray Shepardson: The Man Who Relit Playhouse Square By John Vacha

Bertha Josephine Blue By Debbi Snook

The Scourge of Corrupt and Inefficient Politician: The Citizens League of Greater Cleveland By Marian Morton

The Man Who Saved Cleveland By Michael Roberts and Margaret Gulley

The Best of Teaching Cleveland

Teaching Cleveland Stories

Tom L. Johnson, America’s Best Mayor video

“Cleveland: The City on the Hill 1901-1909” by Hoyt Landon Warner*****

Cleveland in the 1960s by Mike Roberts

Rockefeller in Cleveland by George Condon*

Confession of a Reformer by Frederick Howe (Tom Johnson chapter)**

Regional Government vs Home Rule by Joe Frolik

Cleveland: Economics, Images and Expectations by Dr. John J. Grabowski

Survival – Man and Boy. A story about Lorrenzo Carter from “The Cuyahoga” by William Donohue Ellis*

Making of a Mayor – The Election of Carl Stokes***

Mark Hanna Vs. Tom Johnson by George Condon*

Water by Brent Larkin

Success By Design: The Schreckengost Legacy (video)

Biography of Newton D. Baker by Prof. C. H. Cramer****

African-American Heritage Trail in Cleveland***

Cleveland’s Johnson: The Cabinet by Eugene C. Murdock*****

The Ohio Canal Movement by Harry N. Scheiber*****

The Power Brokers – Glory Days of the Political Bosses by Brent Larkin***

*from Cleveland Memory/CSU Special Collections

**from Kent State Press

***from the Plain Dealer

****from Archive.org

*****from the Ohio Historical Society

*****Ohio State University Press

12 Most Significant Events in Cleveland History

12 Most Significant Events in
Cleveland History

by Joe Frolik

Any list of the 12 top events in Cleveland history is obviously a series of judgments calls that probably reveals more about the person doing the compiling than it does the city. Certainly as I ran down some of the milestones I was considering, my wife’s reaction was immediate and, as usual, probably correct: “Money and politics, money and politics. Is that all you think about?”

I don’t think so, but then again as an editorial writer for Ohio’s largest newspaper, I do spend a lot of my time trying to figure out how Greater Cleveland became the place – politically, economically and socially – that it is today. And much of that evolution involves the interplay of powerful economic, demographic and political forces. Sowith that caveat about the blinders I bring to the task at hand, here is one person’s list of the events that did the most to shape Cleveland’s history, for good and ill.

— Joe Frolik

1) The last Ice Age ends roughly 10,000 years ago, and the retreating Laurentide glacial sheet leaves behind massive basins and plenty of meltwater to fill them: Today we call this gift of nature the Great Lakes. The world’s largest concentration of freshwater made possible both Cleveland’s settlement (Moses Cleaveland) and his party from Connecticut Land Co. sailed east from Buffalo and the mouth of the Cuyahoga River) and its economic boom (without easy access to iron ore from the far end of Lake Superior and waterways to ship out the finished product cheaply, there’s no steel business here). Perhaps the greatest guarantor for Greater Cleveland’s future remains this incredible and increasingly valuable liquid asset.

2) In 1850, Henry Chisholm, a 28-year-old immigrant carpenter and contractor from Scotland arrives in Cleveland to help build a breakwall on the lakefront. Seven years and several major construction projects later, he enters Cleveland’s fledgling iron and steel business by becoming a partner in a plant that re-rolls worn out iron rails. In 1859, Chisholm builds the first blast furnace in Northeast Ohio and in 1868, the first Bessemer converters west of the Alleghenies. His Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. becomes a major integrated producer of iron and steel products and by the 1890s has more than 8,000 employees. Cleveland by then is a major center for making steel and the finished products that use it. It is a transportation center for the ships and railroads that bring in raw materials and take out finished goods. All that also makes it a magnet for tens of thousands of immigrants like Chisholm eager to make their fortune in the New World.

3) Charles Brush is barely 30 years old on April 29, 1879, when he quite literally lights up the town (sorry, LeBron): At 7:55 p.m., Public Square is illuminated by a dozen of the Euclid native’s newly refined arc lights, all mounted on poles significantly higher than traditional gas street lamps and powered by a Brush-patented generator in a building just off the square. Brush’s latest invention proves a sensation: within two years, Brush street lights are in use from Boston to San Francisco. In 1891, his Brush Electric Co. becomes a building block of the new General Electric Co. Brush is not alone in his ability to turn good ideas into useful products. A 1900 Census report ranks Cleveland fifth among U.S. cities in “important patents’’ awarded between 1870 and 1890. This fuels a highly innovative, entrepreneurial – and fast-growing— industrial economy.

4) On April 1, 1901, Cleveland voters elect a new mayor: Tom L. Johnson, the “Great American Paradox,’’ as the New York Times called him, a wealthy businessman who talks like a labor agitator. Over the next eight years, Johnson makes Cleveland a laboratory for Progressive Era civic invention and arguably the best-run city in America. He builds playgrounds, parks and grand public buildings, makes public health the city’s business and holds public meetings in huge circus tents so average citizens can observe and join the deliberations of government. But Johnson’s successes – and those of Newton D. Baker, his like-minded and exceptionally talented protégé who served as mayor from 1911 to 1916 – have one downside: They inspire many communities surrounding Cleveland to embrace the “home rule’’ he and Baker advocate, eventually limiting the city’s potential growth and leading to generations of political Balkanization in Cuyahoga County.

5) In 1917 and 1918, amid the carnage of World War I France field hospitals, four accomplished doctors from Cleveland – Frank E. Bunts, George W. Crile, William E. Lower and John Phillips – begin making plans for a new hospital they will start when they got home, one based on the cooperation across specialty lines that seems to work well in the military. In 1921, they dedicate the first Cleveland Clinic building on Euclid Avenue and East 93rd Street. From the beginning, they set aside part of their revenues and raise additional funds solely for medical research. The result, nine decades later, is not only one of the most highly regarded research hospitals in the world, but the contemporary city’s most important economic engine. With some 40,000 people on its $2 billion annual payroll, the Clinic is far and away Cleveland’s largest employer.

6) On Dec. 11, 1918, the Cleveland Orchestra, under the direction of Russian-born, Yale-educated Nikolai Sokoloff, plays its first concert at Grays Armory on Bolivar Avenue downtown. The 50-plus member ensemble is the brainchild of local impresario Adella Prentiss Hughes, who in 1915 organized the Musical Arts Association and began exhorting the city’s wealthy elites to create a world-class orchestra as a symbol of Cleveland’s rising status. By 1922, Sokoloff and the orchestra are playing Carnegie Hall and establishing a global reputation for themselves and the city they represent. Thanks to a generous gift from industrialist John L. Severance — a memorial to late wife Elizabeth – the orchestra in 1931 gains a permanent and spectacular home in University Circle, an anchor for one of the nation’s premier cultural districts.

7) Cleveland voters go to the polls in a special referendum on Jan. 9, 1919, and agree to a major modification of Daniel Burnham’s Group Plan for downtown. The referendum is orchestrated by the reclusive Van Sweringen brothers, real estate developers Oris and Mantis, who want to include a new central railroad station as part of a massive office complex (Terminal Tower) that they hope to build off Public Square. Burnham’s plan put the depot on the lakefront just below City Hall and Mall C – and voters had ratified it just three years earlier. But the Vans – who want the terminal also to serve as the end point of their Shaker Rapid — mount a massive, modern campaign with heavy use of advertising and carry the day. Terminal Tower becomes a Cleveland icon, but moving the station also turns the city’s back on the lakefront. It will be decades before Cleveland begins to rethink its decision to squander an asset other cities regard as priceless.

8) African Americans, just a generation removed from slavery, begin to move north around 1910, following word that industrial jobs are available. This first Great Migration accelerates when World War I creates a labor shortage and continues until the Depression. Cleveland’s black population, estimated by the Census Bureau at 4,010 in 1900 grows to 70,755 by 1930 with more than half of them arriving during the Roaring ‘20s. Among that decades’ newcomers are Georgians Charles Stokes and Louise Stone. They marry here and by the time Charles, a laundry worker, dies in 1928 have two young sons: Louis and Carl. The Stokes brothers grow up in public housing, go on to law school and as blacks continue to pour into the city – the second wave of the Great Migration includes rabble-rousing Marine veteran from Memphis named George L. Forbes –build a political organization that challenges both white business establishment and the Democratic Party. In 1967, Carl becomes the first black mayor of a major northern city. A year later, Louis becomes Ohio’s black member of Congress.

9) On November 1, 1952, chemicals and other debris floating on Cuyahoga River catch fire and do roughly $1.5 million worth of damage. But the event draws little attention – let alone outrage. There’d been occasional fires on the river since 1868 and as far back as 1881, Mayor Rensselaer R. Herrick had called the Cuyahoga a “sewer that runs through the heart of the city.’’ But in those days, pollution was seen as little more than an unfortunate byproduct of industrial prowess. A very different story unfolds on June 22, 1969, when the Cuyahoga again blazes. Although damage this time is barely $85,000, an angry Mayor Carl Stokes leads a delegation of reporters to the banks of the Cuyahoga the following day and demands help from Washington to clean up the mess. His timing was perfect. With a Time magazine team already in town working on a cover story about pollution’s toll on Lake Erie, this fire becomes a rallying point the nascent environmental movement and leads to passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

10) After 140 years of uninterrupted growth, Cleveland’s white population begins to decline in the 1940s, in part because white GI’s can get low-cost federal home loans to move to the suburbs, while black veterans cannot. “White flight’’ continues into the 1960s, accelerating after two major riots –Hough in 1966 and Glenville in 1969. But the last straw for many whites comes on Aug. 31, 1976, when U.S. District Judge Frank J. Battisti signs a 203-page decision that, among other remedies, orders cross-town busing to end racial segregation. However well-meaning Battititi’s decision may have been – other northern districts had been hit with busing orders before Cleveland – the impact here is devastating.. White flight morphs into middle-class flight. In the 1970s, Cleveland’s black population falls, too, with an exodus of 30,000 people, many to suburbs perceived to have better schools. Battisti’s order remains in effect until the 1990s, when the city’s second black mayor, Michael R. White, leads the charge to end it.

11) On Dec. 15, 1978, a year-long battle between Cleveland’s populist “boy mayor,’’ Dennis Kucinich, and a combative business community, led in this case by Cleveland Trust CEO Brock Weir, comes to a head. A consortium of six local banks calls in $14 million in loans, knowing Kucinich cannot come up with the cash because he refuses to sell Cleveland Public Power as they recommend. Cleveland, its finances held together for nearly a decade by chewing gum, baling wire and accounting tricks, becomes the first U.S. city since the Depression to default. The debacle leads to Kucinich’s defeat in 1979 and effectively ices his political ambitions for another 15 years. But default also forces the business community to rethink its relationship with the city. Under Kucinich’s successor, George V. Voinovich, City Hall and the newly engaged corporate sector form a celebrated public-private partnership that produces several major downtown projects and helps burnish Cleveland’s national image as a “comeback city.’’

12) For decades, good-government groups warned that Cuyahoga County government was a relic of agrarian times with power so diffuse that no one could be held accountable for anything. Not even a poorly supervised investment fiasco in 1994 could prompt more than a study of government reform – that was shelved as soon as public angry subsided. All that changes on July 28, 2008, when nearly 200 federal agents descend on the County Administration Building, the homes of the county’s two most powerful Democratic politicians and the offices of numerous county contractors. They fill U-Haul trucks with documents and computers. After a year of stony silence from federal prosecutors, the indictments begin to flow. On Nov. 2, 2009, appalled voters overwhelming fire the entire county government and concentrate responsibility in a powerful new county executive.