Teaching Cleveland News

Ironworkers placing the last steel beam in the Sohio building (200 Public Square), which was completed in 1985 #ThisWasCLE

Teaching Cleveland News Network
News From Around Ohio and the U.S. 
of Interest to Northeast Ohio
   

FEATURES/OPINION/VIDEO 

Nor Any Drop to Drink?: Why the Great Lakes Face a Murky Future (5/23/2017) New York Times

How food is bringing the rust belt out of its decades-long recession (5/17/2017) Thrillist

Why is Cleveland different than Cincinnati? It all comes down to history (5/17/2017) Cleveland.com

Fracking and the Impact of the Utica Shale on Ohio (5/16/2107) video

Dreaming up Western Reserve — the 51st state? (5/15/2017) a series from Cleveland.com

Cleveland’s legendary Leo’s Casino made music history, transcended race (5/14/2017) Cleveland.com

From Outhwaite to Advocate – Public Housing & the Stokes Legacy (video) May 2017 Ideastream

Historical chat w/Fred Samsel on his early #CuyahogaRiver clean-up efforts (5/11/2017) FreshWater

Video from East Side Development forum May 9, 2017 moderated by Terry Schwarz

From a Maine tribe, a message for the Cleveland Indians: Enough is enough (5/9/2017) Boston Globe

From 1930s redlining to now: Terry Schwarz panel to discuss why East Side development lags (5/6/2017) Cleveland.com

One City in Pennsylvania is Poised to Crush the 21st Century (4/29/2017) BizPhilly

Cleveland’s sports history filled with highs, lows, villains and heroes: PD 175th (vintage photos) (4/29/2017) Plain Dealer

The Future of Offshore Wind in Northeast Ohio Panel-Video 4.28.2017 (City Club of Cleveland)

The Battle for the Right to Vote in Ohio-Video (April 2017) Western Reserve PBS

In Cleveland, co-op model finds hope in employers rooted in the city (4/27/2017) Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

Our costly addiction to healthcare jobs (4/22/2017) New York Times

Video from “Foster Care in Northeast Ohio forum (April 18, 2017)

NFL revenue gap could drive more relocation (April 18, 2017) USA Today

CLE classic: Viktor Schreckengost combined form, function and beauty (April 2017) Freshwater

When Larry Doby broke the American League color barrier in Cleveland: Nicolaus Mills (4/12/2017) Cleveland.com

Built on Steel, Pittsburgh Now Thrives on Culture (4/12/2017) New York Times

NEWS 

Ohio schools may regain paper option for standardized tests (5/24/2017) Columbus Dispatch

U.S. won’t force Ohio to label Lake Erie ‘impaired’ (5/23/2017) Toledo Blade

City refuses to accept petitions on Quicken Loans Arena referendum (5/22/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio attorney general certifies congressional redistricting reform amendment (5/22/2017) Cleveland.com

Big cities struggling to connect with Great Lakes (5/22/2017) Great Lakes Today

Ohio drug-price ballot issue likely to be costly, contentious (5/22/2017) Columbus Dispatch

Cleveland port’s dredging solution uses innovative, environmentally friendly interceptor (5/21/2017) Plain Dealer

Cuyahoga County heroin, fentanyl overdose deaths on pace to far exceed last year’s total (5/19/2017) Cleveland.com

Legal Aid Society sues Cleveland on behalf of toddler, asks court to make city follow lead poisoning laws (5/18/2017) Cleveland.com

Cuyahoga County’s bond rating downgraded because of rising debt as it plans to issue bonds for Q transformation (5/17/2017) Cleveland.com

Cleveland schools, Say Yes to Education ramp up planning to offer free college to all (5/17/2017) Cleveland.com

What’s wrong with Ohio’s economy, in five charts (5/16/2017) Cincinnati Enquirer

A “new normal” for home construction ricochets through Michigan (5/16/2017) Detroit Free Press

More than 2,000 Cuyahoga children in foster care, highest since 2011, thanks to opioid crisis (5/152017) Cleveland.com

Federal Immigration Policies Taking Toll on Cleveland Families, Neighborhoods (5/15/2017) Cleveland Scene

FirstEnergy Solutions facing risky future (5/15/2017) Crain’s Cleveland Business

So Why Is Everybody Running For Ohio Governor And Not The Other Four Offices? (5/13/2017) WKSU

Despite redlining and foreclosure, Cleveland’s East Side could grow with smart investment: panel (5/11/2017) Plain Dealer

Cleveland Mayor Frank Jackson outlines $65 million neighborhood revitalization program (5/10/2017) Cleveland.com

MetroHealth prices bonds at $946 million for campus transformation (5/10/2017) Plain Dealer

Nuclear subsidies distort markets, hurt business, say FirstEnergy opponents (5/10/2017) Plain Dealer

Max Hayes surprise: 1950s shortcut buried some Cleveland history under school (5/8/2017) Cleveland.com

Cleveland’s western rim embarks on development boom (5/6/2017) Crain’s Cleveland Business

Network Bonds for Quicken Loans Arena delayed until referendum issue resolved (5/5/2017) Cleveland.com

UH Bikes expanding as Clevelanders embrace bike sharing, even in winter (5/4/2017) Cleveland.com

Fight over Ohio Drug Price Relief Act ballot issue could set spending record (5/3/2017) Cleveland.com

$63.7 billion state budget bill clears Ohio House (5/2/2107) Cleveland.com

Environmental Groups sue federal agencies over possible fracking in Wayne National Forest, Ohio’s only national forest (5/2/2017) Columbus Dispatch

Cleveland Clinic CEO Toby Cosgrove announces plans to step down (5/1/2017) Cleveland.com

Budget deal funds Great Lakes cleanup through September (May 1, 2017) Columbus Dispatch

Coal-rich, but job-hungry, Appalachia waits for Donald Trump to deliver (4/30/2017) Cleveland.com

Cleveland ignores state law requiring warning signs on homes with unaddressed lead hazards (4/29/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio’s largest 100 employers in 2017; Walmart tops the list (4/27/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio School Funding Unequal 20 Years After Supreme Court Case (4/27/2017) WYSO

Opponents of The Q renovation deal launch referendum effort (4/26/2017) Cleveland.com

Designers “blown away” by potential of Irishtown Bend park as planning begins (4/25/2017) Plain Dealer

No high school graduation fix comes from Ohio House (4/25/2017) Cleveland.com

About 2 million gallons of drilling fluid spilled into two separate wetlands earlier this month, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency says (4/24/2017) Detroit Free Press/Associated Press

Stage 3 of the Towpath Trail in Cleveland will mix nature, industry and great views (4/23/2017)

March for Science in Cleveland packs Public Square (4/22/2017) Cleveland.com

Project 29 Joining Westside’s High-End Apartment Boom, Stoking Neighborhood ‘Growing Pains’ (4/21/2017) Cleveland Scene

Study On Public Sector Retirement Funds Brings Mixed News For Ohio (4/21/2017) WOSU

Retired Ohio teachers to lose cost of living increase (4/20/2017) Dayton Daily News

As middle class shrinks, Columbus must find ways to share prosperity urbanist warns (4/20/2017) Columbus Dispatch

Armond Budish Delivers State of the County, Defends Quicken Loans Arena Deal (4/19/2017) Cleveland Scene

Cuyahoga County Executive Armond Budish announces new initiatives in State of the County address (4/19/2017) Cleveland.com

New urban trail: 1.9 miles breaks ground in Tremont (4/19/2017) FreshWater

Cleveland council’s vote delay suggests lobbying for The Q continues (4/18/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio’s state income tax bill is a bargain, regionally speaking (4/18/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio elementary schools struggle to get students vaccinated (4/16/2017) NBC/Associated Press

Ohio looks to change teacher evaluation system; may move away from test focus (4/13/2017) Dayton Daily News

Lawmakers Scrutinize Kasich’s Proposed Tax Cuts As Ohio’s Revenue Miss Mark Again (4/11/2017) WOSU

Akron prepares to launch city-wide residential tax abatement this summer (4/10/2017) Cleveland.com

Cuyahoga County infant mortality data reveals big hurdles (4/9/2017) Cleveland.com

Some Ohio Republicans still seethe over Kasich’s Medicaid expansion (4/9/2017) Columbus Dispatch

FirstEnergy Corp. gets introduction of the nuclear bailout bill it sought (4/7/2017) Crain’s Cleveland Business

GE could be getting out of the lighting business; Nela Park’s future not clear (4/6/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio’s economic recovery lags nation, experts testify (4/5/2017) Cleveland.com

Ohio tax revenues fell 33 percent short of estimates in March (4/5/2017) Cleveland.com

Kasich discusses economy, technology, opioids in State of State (4/4/2017) Toledo Blade

Text of Ohio Gov. John Kasich’s State of the State address (4/4/2017) Associated Press

Pittsburgh’s growth hampered by death rate, ’empty generation’ (4/3/2017) Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

Researchers ponder whether low ice coverage is the Great Lakes’ new normal (4/2/2017) Chicago Tribune

Before Kasich’s speech, what is Ohio’s true ‘state of the state’? (4/2/2017) Columbus Dispatch

Turnpike travelers will see semi-autonomous trucks on the road this spring (4/1/2107) Plain Dealer

 

News Aggregator “Feature” Archives 2017

News Aggregator “News” Archives 2017

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Important Upcoming Live Events

Important Upcoming Live Events
All open to the public. Please contact if you have questions about any of these events: teachingcleveland@earthlink.net

Wednesday June 14, 2017
“Transportation in Northeast Ohio. Where’s the equity?”
Moderated by Ginger Christ, Reporter, Plain Dealer
Urban Community School 4909 Lorain Avenue, Cleveland OH 44102
7-8:30pm Free and Open to the Public

Tuesday August 29, 2017
“The Election for Mayor; a discussion about the future of Cleveland”
Moderated by Leila Atassi, Reporter, Cleveland.com
CWRU Tinkam Veale Student Center, CWRU Campus
11038 Bellflower Rd, Cleveland, OH 44106
7-8:30pm Free and Open to the Public


All open to the public. Please contact if you have questions about any of these events: teachingcleveland@earthlink.net

Most of these are co-sponsored by the Case Western Reserve University Siegal Lifelong Learning Program, League of Women Voters-Greater Cleveland, Cleveland.com/Plain Dealer plus Heights, Lakewood and Cuyahoga County Library Systems and City of Solon. Corporate sponsor: First Interstate Properties, Ltd.

The Cleveland Catholic series is co-sponsored by John Carroll University-Institute of Catholic Studies, The Carroll News and Teaching Cleveland Digital

 

Editorial: Fairer districts would be refreshing twist Columbus dispatch 4/30/17

Editorial:
Fairer districts would be refreshing twist

The districts cynically split counties, cities, villages, townships and neighborhoods. The current map splits county boundaries 54 times. Seven counties are split among three or more congressional districts.

The districts twist and turn like snakes and other creatures, none more blatantly than the 9th Congressional District, which slithers along the Lake Erie shore from Toledo to Cleveland.

Central Ohio’s three congressional districts also are geographic absurdities, needlessly dividing neighborhoods, school districts, other governmental units and their concerns. Ohioans deserve congressional districts that respect them and the communities in which they live.

Contorted, meandering districts, in Ohio and other states, are a prime reason congressional politics are poisonous — as partisan and ugly as ever in modern times. They encourage extremism, discourage bipartisanship, and sabotage efforts to find common ground.

Fortunately, Ohioans soon might have an opportunity to support a statewide ballot issue to end gerrymandering in our state.

A coalition of nonprofit organizations, called Fair Congressional Districts for Ohio, has submitted a plan to the Ohio attorney general to place an issue on the statewide ballot in November 2017 or November 2018.

Once the attorney general’s office validates the summary language as fair and truthful, it goes to the Ohio Ballot Board for certification.

The reform coalition then must gather at least 305,591 valid signatures of registered Ohio voters — 10 percent of the number voting in the most recent election for governor.

The plan should win wide acceptance, chiefly because it mirrors the reform plan for state legislative districts overwhelmingly approved by Ohio voters (71.5 percent) in November 2015. It won big in all 88 counties.

The current districts were drawn in 2011 and will stay in place until after the 2020 census. New districts must be drawn in 2021 in time for the 2022 elections.

The proposed plan would take the map-drawing job away from the state legislature and give it to the bipartisan Ohio Redistricting Commission. The commission would be required to draw districts that are compact, do not favor or disfavor any political party, and keep communities together as much as possible.

The League of Women Voters of Ohio, one of the coalition partners, has been working doggedly on this issue for four decades, through Democratic and Republican administrations and legislatures. The league deserves widespread support for its steadfast efforts to add Ohio to the ranks of states putting citizen interests ahead of power politics.

Details of the proposed amendment, and information on getting involved, can be found at fairdistrictsohio.org.

Fortunately, in the past year some of Ohio’s leading Republicans have challenged their party to take a lead role in ending gerrymandering. They include Gov. John Kasich, Secretary of State Jon Husted and former governors Bob Taft and (the late) George Voinovich.

Several years ago, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony M. Kennedy — an appointee of Ronald Reagan — said of gerrymandering: “It is unfortunate that when it comes to apportionment, we are in the business of rigging elections.”

Ohioans of every political stripe should embrace this opportunity to slay the gerrymander and end rigged elections.

“Transportation in Northeast Ohio. Where’s the equity?” a forum on Weds June 14, 2017

“Transportation in Northeast Ohio.
Where’s the equity?”

Wednesday June 14, 2017 7:00-8:30p.m.
Cost: Free & Open to the Public
Urban Community School 4909 Lorain Avenue, Cleveland OH 44102

RSVP here   Event flyer here
Panelists:
Derek Bauman, Vice Chairman, All Aboard Ohio

Grace Gallucci, Executive Director, NOACA: Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency

Hunter Morrison, Senior Fellow, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs

Akshai Singh, Member, Clevelanders for Public Transit

Moderator: Ginger Christ, Reporter, Plain Dealer

This panel will discuss the role transportation plays in creating more equitable communities. It will tackle how to offer affordable public transit and design infrastructure to meet the needs of residents throughout the region and examine the funding challenges in doing so.


Ginger Christ

Co-sponsored by the Urban Community School, Case Western Reserve University Siegal Lifelong Learning Program, League of Women Voters-Greater Cleveland, Cleveland.com plus Lakewood, Heights and Cuyahoga County Library Systems

Corporate sponsor: First Interstate Properties, Ltd. 
For more information, email: 
teachingcleveland@earthlink.net

“Fracking and the Impact of the Utica Shale on Ohio” a forum on May 16, 2017

“Fracking and the Impact of the Utica Shale on Ohio”
a forum moderated by Dan Shingler, Crain’s Cleveland Business

Tuesday May 16, 2017  
7-8:30 p.m.
Free & Open to the Public
Solon Community Center 35000 Portz Pkwy, Solon, OH 44139

RSVP here  Event flyer here  Preview here
Tape from forum is here


Panelists:
Michael Chadsey, Ohio Oil and Gas Association
Trent Dougherty, Ohio Environmental Council

Edward “Ned” Hill, John Glenn College of Pub Affairs, The OH State Univ.
Moderator:
Dan Shingler, Crain’s Cleveland Business


Dan Shingler

Co-sponsored by the Case Western Reserve University Siegal Lifelong Learning Program, League of Women Voters-Greater Cleveland, Cleveland.com, Plain Dealer and Cuyahoga County Library Systems
Corporate sponsor: First Interstate Properties, Ltd.
For more information, email: teachingcleveland@earthlink.net
 

“East Side Development. Prospects for Reinvention” Forum moderated by Terry Schwarz (video)

East Side Development: Prospects for Reinvention
Tuesday May 9, 2017
7-8:30p.m. Cost: Free & Open to the Public
Cleveland Hts/University Hts Public Library, 2345 Lee Road 44118

RSVP here   Event flyer here Preview story

Video from forum is here

Panelists:
Joyce Braverman Director of Development, City of Shaker Hts.
Mansfield Frazier, Journalist, Business Owner and Hough Resident
Wayne Mortensen Director Of Design, Cleveland Neighborhood Progress
Rick Semersky Developer/CEO, VIP Restoration, Inc.

Moderator:
Terry Schwarz, Director, Cleveland Urban Design Collab., Kent State Univ.

Cleveland’s east side/west side rivalry is a tired cliché—one that’s counterproductive to our ability to move forward as a region. Major investments and new opportunities exist on both sides of the river. But there are some key differences. Some of the most exciting recent developments (Hingetown! Gordon Square! The Lakewood Solstice Steps!) are west of the river. And many of Cleveland’s most distressed neighborhoods lie to the east.

This forum will explore established development strongholds on the east side, as well as emerging neighborhoods. What are the progress indicators and how can we advance development prospects and public space investments in ways that benefit the broader community? Panelists include people directly involved in the hopeful, and sometimes frustrating work of regenerating city neighborhoods and inner-ring suburbs. The forum will highlight current efforts and engage participants in a conversation about local and regional priorities.


Terry Schwarz
Co-sponsored by the Case Western Reserve University Siegal Lifelong Learning Program, League of Women Voters-Greater Cleveland, Cleveland.com plus Cleveland Hts/University Hts, Lakewood and Cuyahoga County Library Systems
Corporate sponsor: First Interstate Properties, Ltd.
For more information, email: teachingcleveland@earthlink.net

The Best of Teaching Cleveland

Teaching Cleveland Stories

Tom L. Johnson, America’s Best Mayor video

“Cleveland: The City on the Hill 1901-1909” by Hoyt Landon Warner*****

Cleveland in the 1960s by Mike Roberts

Rockefeller in Cleveland by George Condon*

Confession of a Reformer by Frederick Howe (Tom Johnson chapter)**

Regional Government vs Home Rule by Joe Frolik

Cleveland: Economics, Images and Expectations by Dr. John J. Grabowski

Survival – Man and Boy. A story about Lorrenzo Carter from “The Cuyahoga” by William Donohue Ellis*

Making of a Mayor – The Election of Carl Stokes***

Mark Hanna Vs. Tom Johnson by George Condon*

Water by Brent Larkin

Success By Design: The Schreckengost Legacy (video)

Biography of Newton D. Baker by Prof. C. H. Cramer****

African-American Heritage Trail in Cleveland***

Cleveland’s Johnson: The Cabinet by Eugene C. Murdock*****

The Ohio Canal Movement by Harry N. Scheiber*****

The Power Brokers – Glory Days of the Political Bosses by Brent Larkin***

*from Cleveland Memory/CSU Special Collections

**from Kent State Press

***from the Plain Dealer

****from Archive.org

*****from the Ohio Historical Society

*****Ohio State University Press

Cleveland History Self Study: A 5 Week Syllabus of Recommended Essays

Cleveland Stories: An Informal Look at the City’s Past

A 5 Week essay-based syllabus suggested by Dr. Marian Morton, professor emerita at John Carroll University with expertise in Cleveland area history.

Overview: A discussion of some of Cleveland’s most interesting and important people, places, and events
Objective: To link the city’s past with its present policies, politics, and practices

Week 1. Introduction. Read Teaching Cleveland Stories (TCS)John J. Grabowski, “Cleveland: Economics, Images, and Expectations”

Week 2. TCS: Mike Roberts and Margaret Gulley, “The Man Who Saved Cleveland.” Elizabeth Sullivan, “Immigration”  John Vacha, “The Heart of Amasa Stone”; Joe Frolik, “Mark Hanna: The Clevelander Who Made a President”

Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: Timeline of Cleveland/NE Ohio; The Western Reserve, 1796-1820, and Pre-Industrial (Erie and Ohio Canals), 1820-1865 and The Industrial Revolution/ John D. Rockefeller/ Mark Hanna, 1865-1900

Week 3. TCS: John J. Grabowski, “Cleveland 1912 – Civitas Triumphant”; Joe Frolik, “Regional Government versus Home Rule”  John Vacha, “When Cleveland Saw Red”  Margaret Bernstein, ‘’Inventor Garrett Morgan, Cleveland’s Fierce Bootstrapper”  Marian Morton, “How Cleveland Women Got the Vote and What They Did With It”

Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: Progressive Era/Tom L. Johnson/ Newton D. Baker, 1900-1915 and Fred Kohler/City Managers/Political Bosses, 1920s and The Van Sweringens/ Depression … 1930s

Week 4. TCS: Thomas Suddes, “The Adult Education Tradition in Greater Cleveland”  Bill Lubinger, “Bill Veeck: The Man Who Conquered Cleveland and Changed Baseball Forever”  Jay Miller, “Cyrus Eaton: Khruschev’s Favorite Capitalist” Roldo Bartimole, “One Man Can Make a Difference”  Mike Roberts, “Cleveland in the 1960s” and “Cleveland in the 1970s”

Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: World War 2- Post War, 1940s; Carl Stokes- Civil Rights, 1960s and Ralph Perk-Dennis Kucinich, 1970s

Week 5TCS: Mike Roberts, “Cleveland in the 1980s” and “Cleveland in the 1990s” Supplemental: TeachingCleveland.org: “10 Greatest Clevelanders”; “12 Most Significant Events”; Cleveland Politician Interview Series (George Forbes, Jim Rokakis, Louis Stokes, George Voinovich, Michael R. White); Mike Roberts, “Cleveland in the 2000s

General questions: what is the main point of each article? Did you agree or disagree? What did you find most interesting? What would you add? Or subtract? 

 

Teaching Cleveland Stories

Cleveland 1912: Civitas Triumphant By Dr. John Grabowski

Mark Hanna: The Clevelander Who Made a President By Joe Frolik

Rockefeller’s Right-Hand Man: Henry Flagler By Michael D. Roberts

Cleveland’s Original Black Leader: John O. Holly By Mansfield Frazier

The Heart of Amasa Stone By John Vacha

Frederic C. Howe:  Making Cleveland the City Beautiful (Or At Least Trying) by Marian Morton

Bill Veeck: The Man Who Conquered Cleveland and Changed Baseball Forever By Bill Lubinger

When Cleveland Saw Red By John Vacha

Maurice Maschke: The Gentleman Boss of Cleveland by Brent Larkin

Inventor Garrett Morgan, Cleveland’s Fierce Bootstrapper  by Margaret Bernstein

How Cleveland Women Got the Vote and What They Did With It  by Marian Morton

One Man Can Make a Difference by Roldo Bartimole

The Election That Changed Cleveland Forever by Michael D Roberts

Deferring Dreams: Racial and Religious Covenants in Shaker Heights, Cleveland Heights and East Cleveland, 1925 to 1970 By Marian Morton

Cyrus Eaton: Khruschev’s Favorite Capitalist By Jay Miller

Ray Shepardson: The Man Who Relit Playhouse Square By John Vacha

Bertha Josephine Blue By Debbi Snook

The Scourge of Corrupt and Inefficient Politician: The Citizens League of Greater Cleveland By Marian Morton

The Man Who Saved Cleveland By Michael Roberts and Margaret Gulley

12 Most Significant Events in Cleveland History

12 Most Significant Events in
Cleveland History

by Joe Frolik

Any list of the 12 top events in Cleveland history is obviously a series of judgments calls that probably reveals more about the person doing the compiling than it does the city. Certainly as I ran down some of the milestones I was considering, my wife’s reaction was immediate and, as usual, probably correct: “Money and politics, money and politics. Is that all you think about?”

I don’t think so, but then again as an editorial writer for Ohio’s largest newspaper, I do spend a lot of my time trying to figure out how Greater Cleveland became the place – politically, economically and socially – that it is today. And much of that evolution involves the interplay of powerful economic, demographic and political forces. Sowith that caveat about the blinders I bring to the task at hand, here is one person’s list of the events that did the most to shape Cleveland’s history, for good and ill.

— Joe Frolik

1) The last Ice Age ends roughly 10,000 years ago, and the retreating Laurentide glacial sheet leaves behind massive basins and plenty of meltwater to fill them: Today we call this gift of nature the Great Lakes. The world’s largest concentration of freshwater made possible both Cleveland’s settlement (Moses Cleaveland) and his party from Connecticut Land Co. sailed east from Buffalo and the mouth of the Cuyahoga River) and its economic boom (without easy access to iron ore from the far end of Lake Superior and waterways to ship out the finished product cheaply, there’s no steel business here). Perhaps the greatest guarantor for Greater Cleveland’s future remains this incredible and increasingly valuable liquid asset.

2) In 1850, Henry Chisholm, a 28-year-old immigrant carpenter and contractor from Scotland arrives in Cleveland to help build a breakwall on the lakefront. Seven years and several major construction projects later, he enters Cleveland’s fledgling iron and steel business by becoming a partner in a plant that re-rolls worn out iron rails. In 1859, Chisholm builds the first blast furnace in Northeast Ohio and in 1868, the first Bessemer converters west of the Alleghenies. His Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. becomes a major integrated producer of iron and steel products and by the 1890s has more than 8,000 employees. Cleveland by then is a major center for making steel and the finished products that use it. It is a transportation center for the ships and railroads that bring in raw materials and take out finished goods. All that also makes it a magnet for tens of thousands of immigrants like Chisholm eager to make their fortune in the New World.

3) Charles Brush is barely 30 years old on April 29, 1879, when he quite literally lights up the town (sorry, LeBron): At 7:55 p.m., Public Square is illuminated by a dozen of the Euclid native’s newly refined arc lights, all mounted on poles significantly higher than traditional gas street lamps and powered by a Brush-patented generator in a building just off the square. Brush’s latest invention proves a sensation: within two years, Brush street lights are in use from Boston to San Francisco. In 1891, his Brush Electric Co. becomes a building block of the new General Electric Co. Brush is not alone in his ability to turn good ideas into useful products. A 1900 Census report ranks Cleveland fifth among U.S. cities in “important patents’’ awarded between 1870 and 1890. This fuels a highly innovative, entrepreneurial – and fast-growing— industrial economy.

4) On April 1, 1901, Cleveland voters elect a new mayor: Tom L. Johnson, the “Great American Paradox,’’ as the New York Times called him, a wealthy businessman who talks like a labor agitator. Over the next eight years, Johnson makes Cleveland a laboratory for Progressive Era civic invention and arguably the best-run city in America. He builds playgrounds, parks and grand public buildings, makes public health the city’s business and holds public meetings in huge circus tents so average citizens can observe and join the deliberations of government. But Johnson’s successes – and those of Newton D. Baker, his like-minded and exceptionally talented protégé who served as mayor from 1911 to 1916 – have one downside: They inspire many communities surrounding Cleveland to embrace the “home rule’’ he and Baker advocate, eventually limiting the city’s potential growth and leading to generations of political Balkanization in Cuyahoga County.

5) In 1917 and 1918, amid the carnage of World War I France field hospitals, four accomplished doctors from Cleveland – Frank E. Bunts, George W. Crile, William E. Lower and John Phillips – begin making plans for a new hospital they will start when they got home, one based on the cooperation across specialty lines that seems to work well in the military. In 1921, they dedicate the first Cleveland Clinic building on Euclid Avenue and East 93rd Street. From the beginning, they set aside part of their revenues and raise additional funds solely for medical research. The result, nine decades later, is not only one of the most highly regarded research hospitals in the world, but the contemporary city’s most important economic engine. With some 40,000 people on its $2 billion annual payroll, the Clinic is far and away Cleveland’s largest employer.

6) On Dec. 11, 1918, the Cleveland Orchestra, under the direction of Russian-born, Yale-educated Nikolai Sokoloff, plays its first concert at Grays Armory on Bolivar Avenue downtown. The 50-plus member ensemble is the brainchild of local impresario Adella Prentiss Hughes, who in 1915 organized the Musical Arts Association and began exhorting the city’s wealthy elites to create a world-class orchestra as a symbol of Cleveland’s rising status. By 1922, Sokoloff and the orchestra are playing Carnegie Hall and establishing a global reputation for themselves and the city they represent. Thanks to a generous gift from industrialist John L. Severance — a memorial to late wife Elizabeth – the orchestra in 1931 gains a permanent and spectacular home in University Circle, an anchor for one of the nation’s premier cultural districts.

7) Cleveland voters go to the polls in a special referendum on Jan. 9, 1919, and agree to a major modification of Daniel Burnham’s Group Plan for downtown. The referendum is orchestrated by the reclusive Van Sweringen brothers, real estate developers Oris and Mantis, who want to include a new central railroad station as part of a massive office complex (Terminal Tower) that they hope to build off Public Square. Burnham’s plan put the depot on the lakefront just below City Hall and Mall C – and voters had ratified it just three years earlier. But the Vans – who want the terminal also to serve as the end point of their Shaker Rapid — mount a massive, modern campaign with heavy use of advertising and carry the day. Terminal Tower becomes a Cleveland icon, but moving the station also turns the city’s back on the lakefront. It will be decades before Cleveland begins to rethink its decision to squander an asset other cities regard as priceless.

8) African Americans, just a generation removed from slavery, begin to move north around 1910, following word that industrial jobs are available. This first Great Migration accelerates when World War I creates a labor shortage and continues until the Depression. Cleveland’s black population, estimated by the Census Bureau at 4,010 in 1900 grows to 70,755 by 1930 with more than half of them arriving during the Roaring ‘20s. Among that decades’ newcomers are Georgians Charles Stokes and Louise Stone. They marry here and by the time Charles, a laundry worker, dies in 1928 have two young sons: Louis and Carl. The Stokes brothers grow up in public housing, go on to law school and as blacks continue to pour into the city – the second wave of the Great Migration includes rabble-rousing Marine veteran from Memphis named George L. Forbes –build a political organization that challenges both white business establishment and the Democratic Party. In 1967, Carl becomes the first black mayor of a major northern city. A year later, Louis becomes Ohio’s black member of Congress.

9) On November 1, 1952, chemicals and other debris floating on Cuyahoga River catch fire and do roughly $1.5 million worth of damage. But the event draws little attention – let alone outrage. There’d been occasional fires on the river since 1868 and as far back as 1881, Mayor Rensselaer R. Herrick had called the Cuyahoga a “sewer that runs through the heart of the city.’’ But in those days, pollution was seen as little more than an unfortunate byproduct of industrial prowess. A very different story unfolds on June 22, 1969, when the Cuyahoga again blazes. Although damage this time is barely $85,000, an angry Mayor Carl Stokes leads a delegation of reporters to the banks of the Cuyahoga the following day and demands help from Washington to clean up the mess. His timing was perfect. With a Time magazine team already in town working on a cover story about pollution’s toll on Lake Erie, this fire becomes a rallying point the nascent environmental movement and leads to passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

10) After 140 years of uninterrupted growth, Cleveland’s white population begins to decline in the 1940s, in part because white GI’s can get low-cost federal home loans to move to the suburbs, while black veterans cannot. “White flight’’ continues into the 1960s, accelerating after two major riots –Hough in 1966 and Glenville in 1969. But the last straw for many whites comes on Aug. 31, 1976, when U.S. District Judge Frank J. Battisti signs a 203-page decision that, among other remedies, orders cross-town busing to end racial segregation. However well-meaning Battititi’s decision may have been – other northern districts had been hit with busing orders before Cleveland – the impact here is devastating.. White flight morphs into middle-class flight. In the 1970s, Cleveland’s black population falls, too, with an exodus of 30,000 people, many to suburbs perceived to have better schools. Battisti’s order remains in effect until the 1990s, when the city’s second black mayor, Michael R. White, leads the charge to end it.

11) On Dec. 15, 1978, a year-long battle between Cleveland’s populist “boy mayor,’’ Dennis Kucinich, and a combative business community, led in this case by Cleveland Trust CEO Brock Weir, comes to a head. A consortium of six local banks calls in $14 million in loans, knowing Kucinich cannot come up with the cash because he refuses to sell Cleveland Public Power as they recommend. Cleveland, its finances held together for nearly a decade by chewing gum, baling wire and accounting tricks, becomes the first U.S. city since the Depression to default. The debacle leads to Kucinich’s defeat in 1979 and effectively ices his political ambitions for another 15 years. But default also forces the business community to rethink its relationship with the city. Under Kucinich’s successor, George V. Voinovich, City Hall and the newly engaged corporate sector form a celebrated public-private partnership that produces several major downtown projects and helps burnish Cleveland’s national image as a “comeback city.’’

12) For decades, good-government groups warned that Cuyahoga County government was a relic of agrarian times with power so diffuse that no one could be held accountable for anything. Not even a poorly supervised investment fiasco in 1994 could prompt more than a study of government reform – that was shelved as soon as public angry subsided. All that changes on July 28, 2008, when nearly 200 federal agents descend on the County Administration Building, the homes of the county’s two most powerful Democratic politicians and the offices of numerous county contractors. They fill U-Haul trucks with documents and computers. After a year of stony silence from federal prosecutors, the indictments begin to flow. On Nov. 2, 2009, appalled voters overwhelming fire the entire county government and concentrate responsibility in a powerful new county executive.